Scientific research process refers to the works or steps which are to be followed while conducting research. Such process helps to carry forwarded while conducting research. Such process helps to carry forward the research work and draw reliable conclusions. There are a few process of scientific research. In this chapter, we will discuss the most widely used process of scientific research.
- Realizing a problem
First of all, a researcher should feel the problem for undertaking research. Problem for undertaking research. Problems are created due to change in environment or any other reasons. Researcher should realize and be worried with such problem. Realization can be made through feeling, study, experience and observation. Even though researcher is not able to find out the problem but he/she can feel the uneasiness in the environment.
- Identification of problem
after realizing the problem, researcher should try to find out the cases of the problems and the actual problem. Researcher should find out the problem and causes through the collection of information and analysis of situation. Research should define such problems that helps to minimize time and cost. Thus, researcher should clearly identify the problem. For example, if a sale is decreased then decrease in the sale is symptom so the researcher should find out the causes of decrease in the sale. It may be due to lack of motivation, incompetent sales force, etc.
- Review of literature
Literature review refers to the study of previous research and documents. Researcher should find out the study gap from the review of literature. It helps to define the problem and find out the methods which are suitable to study over the research problem and issues. It shows the way of concluding it. It simultaneously helps to develop theoretical framework.
- Hypothesis formulation
Hypothesis refers to the basis of pas t studies. It presents the relationship of two variables in the testable form. Researcher finds out the problems and related factors of problem through literature review. On the basis of the facts found from literature review, researcher formulates hypothesis. It helps to determine the methods to be used and data to be collected. Hypothesis may not be always accepted. Sometimes. It may be rejected. Hypothesis may not be always accepted. Sometimes, it may be rejected. Hypothesis helps to systematize the result and draw conclusions.
- Research design
Research design is a framework of research. Research works are completed based on research design. It helps to collect evidence in less time and cost. Research design depends on the objectives of research. It clarifies the way of collecting data, method of analysis and bases of research. Research design is prepared before initiating research. Researchers should find out appropriate research design based on the research problem.
- Collection of data
Collection of information on the basis of research problem and objectives is referred as data collection. It is the work performed in the field/ outside the organization. Success of research depends largely on data collection. Reliable data collection helps to draw reliable conclusion. A researcher should develop questionnaire, schedule for interview or observation for collecting data. But data collection differs on the basis of objectives, research design and need. Researcher should decide what sort of data and information are essential, before data collection.
- Data analysis
A researcher classifies all the collected data and information on the basis of their feature and nature. Classified data are then codified, tabulated and presented in charts. Such presented data are analyzed using mathematical, statistical, financial and accounting tools. Most of the researchers use statistical tools for the analysis of data. Mean, Median, mode and standard deviation are descriptive statistical tools depends on the research objective, research design and nature of data.
- Interpretation and generalization
After the analysis of the data, certain conclusions can be drawn in relation to hypothesis. Whatever the conclusions are drawn, they are considered as theories. Such conclusions are applied in all the similar organizations which are regarded as generalization. Conclusions without hypothesis are discussed on the basis of previous theories such discussions create new issues and require further research.