Research is broadly classified into two categories explained below:
- Basic or Fundamental Research
- Applied or Action Research
Basic or Fundamental Research
A research that is conducted to acquire depth knowledge on any issue of for the development of theory is known as basic or fundamental research. The main purpose of basic research is to generate more knowledge and understanding of the issue and build theories based on research results. Such theories are the bases for the further research in same issue. Professors, academia and students do basic or fundamental research so that more knowledge is generated in particular areas of interest. The main is not to apply the findings to solve an immediate problem but to understand more about certain issues that takes place in several organizations and industries. For example, a theory developed in the issue of absenteeism is not used only in one organization or one type of organization but it can be used in several organizations of different nature.
According to P.V. Young, “Gathering knowledge for knowledge sake is termed as pure or basic research.”
According to D. B. Bhattacharya, “A research that is primarily interested to find out certain basic principles not the solution of the problem is basic principles not the solution of the problem in basic research.”
From the analysis of above given concept and definitions, basic research can be distinguished with following key characteristics:
- Develops fundamental principles.
- Principles developed by basic research can be generalized.
- Finds major factors of practical problems.
- Helps to understand the problems in depth.
- Develops various alternative solutions of various problems.
Applied or action Research
A research that is conducted to find out a solution for an immediate problem faced by the society or business organization is known as applied research. The main aim of applied research is to find out the solution for some practical problems. Applied research provides answer of the problems raised on policy, program, projects and procedures. Applied research is conducted when required. It is more concerned with actual life. It also suggests remedial measures to alleviate social problems or solve business problems.
According to P.V. Young, “Generating knowledge that could aid in the betterment of human benefit is termed as applied research.”
According to D. B. Bhattacharya, “A research method that is used in social science research which helps to contradict, alter or modify any exiting theory or theories and helps to formulate policy is applied research.”
Generally, business organizations appoint experts from outside paying large amount to conduct applied/ action research. Based on the analysis of above given concept and definitions applied research can be distinguished with following characteristics:
- It is related with solving real life problems.
- Conclusion of applied research can be implemented immediately.
- Applied research helps to prove concepts.
- Applied research helps to formulate new policies and programs improving previous procedures and practices.